Programmable Automation Technologies (CD-ROM in PDF)

Programmable Automation Technologies
An Introduction to CNC, Robotics, and PLCs

Daniel E. Kandray


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Divided into four parts, Programmable Automation Technologies focuses on processes and systems used in industry. Comprehensive yet concise, this unique textbook provides a solid foundation of analytical techniques to justify automation. It provides the knowledge and instruction on how to program computer numerical controlled (CNC) equipment, industrial robots and programmable logic controllers (PLCs).


Through a very practical approach, readers will learn specific programming languages related to each technology, including G code and ladder logic. And Programmable Automation Technologies is sure to be found useful by electrical, industrial, mechanical and manufacturing engineering technology undergraduate students. The rich and detailed introductory text will also appeal to anyone in industry interested in learning about programmable automation and developing the corresponding programming skills.



  • Each chapter begins with an overview of the topic with emphasis on desired outcomes and concludes with a summary, questions, and problems where appropriate.
  • Presents explicit skills and methodologies to aid in the programming process.
  • Features strong examples with numerous illustrations.
  • Uses computer simulation and actual lab equipment extensively in learning activities.



Adobe Reader or Acrobat is required for use; Internet access is required for product activation. The CD-ROM is compatible with most Microsoft Windows operating systems from Windows 98 to Windows 8 and 8 Pro, but it is not compatible with later operating systems, Android devices, iPads, iPhones, and similar devices.

  Daniel Kandray

Daniel M. Kandray is a gratudale of Youngstown State University, with an M.T. from Kent State University. A faculty member in the Department of Engineering & Science Technology in Summit College at the University of Akron, he was previously a faculty member at Kent State University. He is a member of the Soociety of Manufacturing Engineers and a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio.

Programmable Automation Technologies

An Introduction to CNC, Robotics, and PLCs
Daniel E. Kandray


For many years I taught an engineering technology course on robotics and flexible automation. I found that books that covered the fairly familiar concept of robotics were available, as were books that did an excellent job with computer numerical control (CNC) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). However, books that truly addressed flexible automation were not so easy to find. In fact, it was very difficult to find a single text that incisively and usefully addressed all these engineering technology topics. So, throughout the years I collected and organized necessary and important information concerning flexible automation, from various sources, and disseminated it to my students. Armed with these notes, students would not need to purchase several books that would cover the course topics. Eventually, I decided to write the present book; with it I hope to fill a significant void in the literature.

Flexible automation is the use of a conglomeration of manufacturing equipment organized or connected into a single entity called a manufacturing cell. Manufacturing cells contain an assortment of material handling equipment, including robots and CNC processing equipment. Most often the cell’s activities are orchestrated and directed by a PLC. The robot, CNC equipment, and PLC make the cell “flexible,” as they can be programmed and reprogrammed to perform a wide variety of tasks and produce different products. This single text addresses all three technologies of robotics, CNC, and PLCs.


Yet, “flexible automation” is, in fact, a misnomer. While it is true that the term is appropriate for a specific manufacturing cell in which the technologies are employed, when grouping robotics, CNC, and PLCs under a collective banner, one should highlight what these technologies have in common—namely, “programmability.” Therefore, these technologies are collectively named “programmable automation technologies,” and this book is so titled: Programmable Automation Technologies: An Introduction to CNC, Robotics and PLCs.


While I was writing this text, the nation’s—indeed the world’s—economy plunged into a severe recession. To rise from the current economic turmoil the manufacturing industry must become more productive, a goal that is readily achievable through automation. Programmable automation technologies are the building blocks from which all automation is developed. Hence, the urgent need to improve productivity and become more competitive in the global economy should motivate a significantly greater interest in programmable automation.


The present text is organized into a four sections, which follow a logical sequence of inquiry. The first section is introductory: Chapter 1 provides some background on manufacturing and defines programmable automation. Chapter 2 explains calculation methods used to justify automation expenditures, as motivated by productivity concepts. The second section treats computer numerical control: Chapter 3 introduces CNC technology, Chapter 4 discusses CNC programming, and Chapter 5 addresses CNC simulation. Robotics is covered in the third section in much the same way that CNC was covered in the second section: Chapter 6 introduces robotics technology and Chapter 7 goes over both robotic programming and simulation. (Note that robotic simulation does not have a dedicated chapter.) The last section of the text addresses PLCs: Chapter 8 introduces PLCs and Chapter 9 covers programming and simulation of PLCs. Finally, Chapter 10 concludes the text with a discussion of how all three technologies are brought together to create a programmable automation cell.


Engineering technology students at two- and four-year colleges comprise the book’s primary audience. However, anyone with a technical background and a general understanding of manufacturing and manufacturing processes will find this text useful, as well as to those who wish, simply, to study and understand the use of these technologies. Engineering technology is an applied science, so its students need to learn much more than theory: They need also practical knowledge, skills, and abilities that will allow them to readily apply automation technology. For this reason, the text offers plentiful examples and identifies and discusses readily available simulation software with which the reader can experiment.


I welcome and look forward to feedback from students, instructors and the general reader. Please write to me at and the publisher will forward your messages to me.

  Dan Kandray


Note: All chapters include the following sections:

  • Summary
  • Key Words
  • Review Questions
  • Bibliography

Chapter 1: Introduction to Programmable Automation 

  • Introduction to Programmable Automation
  • The Manufacturing Process
  • Automation
  • Manufacturing Performance Measures
  • Benefits of Automation
  • Automation Strategies

Chapter 2: Automation Justification and Productivity Concepts

  • Automation Justification and Productivity
  • Productivity Calculations
  • Process Outputs and Mathematical Concepts for Quantifying Production
  • Process Inputs and Manufacturing Costs
  • Comparing Alternatives with Productivity Calculations
  • The Impact of Production Volume on Alternatives
  • Productivity and the USA Principle

Chapter 3: Introduction to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

  • Introduction to CNC Technology
  • CNC System Components
  • Coordinate Systems and Reference Points
  • The Ten Steps of CNC Programming
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of CNC Technology
  • When to Use CNC Technology

Chapter 4: CNC Programming 

  • Overview of CNC Programming
  • Program Code
  • Cutting Parameters
  • Program Organization
  • Programming Process
  • Turning Programs

Chapter 5: CNC Simulation Software 

  • Overview of CNC Simulation Software
  • Installation and Setup of CNCSimulator®
  • User Interface
  • Simulation Examples

Chapter 6: Introduction to Robotic Technology 

  • Industrial Robotics
  • Robot Hardware
  • Robot Applications
  • Robot Safety
  • Robot Selection Considerations

Chapter 7: Robot Programming

  • Robot Programming Concepts
  • Programming Methods
  • Robot Programming Languages
  • Robot Program Development, Organization, and Structure
  • Writing Robot Program of Instructions
  • Robot Simulation
  • Robot Program Simulation Example

Chapter 8: Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

  • Programmable Logic Control Overview
  • Industrial Process Control
  • PLC Terminology
  • PLC Hardware Components
  • PLC Applications
  • Sensors and Actuators
  • Implementing Automation with PLCs

Chapter 9: Programming PLCs

  • Programming Concepts
  • Ladder Logic Terminology
  • Typical PLC Instruction Set
  • PLC Programming Process
  • PLC Program Simulation
  • PLC Programming Example

Chapter 10: Automated Workstations and Work Cells

  • Automated Workstations and Work Cells
  • Workstation and Work Cell Components
  • Automated Workstation and Work Cell Examples